Zéro tué sur la route: Un système sûr, des objectifs ambitieux (TRANSPORTS) (French Edition)
Dans le tunnel, il existe des feux de signalisation tous les m. L'exploitation du tunnel repose actuellement sur la convention franco-italienne du 14 mars Il n'existe pas de plan de secours publics commun franco-italien.go to link
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Pour ce faire, il faut en doubler le nombre. Les moyens techniques devront faciliter la constatation des infractions. Ceci est plus faible que pour tous les autres tunnels bidirectionnels modernes. Cette action a pour effet d'afficher cette limitation de vitesse dans les cabines de conduite des trains circulant dans cet intervalle. A 23h39, le commandant des sapeurs-pompiers est en mesure de rapporter au P.
Comme le P. A 01h52, le P. L'ensemble de cette zone a fait l'objet d'un renforcement et d'une reconstruction..
Les principaux sont les suivants:. La cause exacte de cette disjonction n'est pas connue. Une alarme incendie se traduit par l'allumage d'un voyant en cabine de conduite. A l'avenir, Eurotunnel ne devra pas s'abstenir d'explorer d'autres options. Cette formation doit s'appuyer sur des exercices pratiques. Eurotunnel doit revoir sa politique de formation aux premiers secours. Holland 2 m. New-York U. Chute du chargement. Nihonzaka 2 m.
Shizuoka Japon. Kajiwara m. Caldecott 1 m. Oakland U. Isola delle Femmine m. Palerme Italie. Billwerder-Moorfleet m. Hambourg Allemagne. Guadarrama 3 m. Guadarrama Espagne. Paris France. Velsen m. Velsen Pays-Bas. Pecorile m. Modane France-Italie. Gothard 16 m. Goeschenen-Airolo Suisse. Felbertassen m. L'Arme 1 m. Nice France. Gumefens m.
Berne Suisse. Serra Ripoli m. Son efficacite a ete mesuree en valeur absolue pour des groupes de neutrons de diverses energies. Ce dispositif a permis obtenir quelques indications sur la composition energetique des neutrons sortant de la pile de Chatillon. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de a nos jours.
Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques.
A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques.
Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees , le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique , industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique , genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie.
Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans. Problems and energy choices in Burkina Faso[Energie ; Economie domestique ; Bois de feu ; Produits petroliers ; Legislation fonciere ; Electricite]; Burkina : Problemes et choix energetiques. This document is about the evaluation of the energy sector in Burkina Faso. It reports about the main issues of energy: poverty of the households, the lack of fund to finance the sector, desertification The main resources of energy are firewood, fuel and electricity.
The energy needs of Burkina Faso are related to the cooking of food, with liquid fuels intended for the railway transport and fuels used in industry and for the production of electricity. With regard to the transport sector, there is currently no possibility of substitution for the fuel, except the use of ethanol diluted in the gasoline. At the industrial level, agro-industrial, bagasse and the other residues constitute right now the independent source of energy for the production of industrial heat as well as for that of electricity. For the public network of electricity supply, the production rests exclusively on diesel power stations.
Regarding the immense needs for its populations in energy, Burkina has only very limited resources. The biomass used for domestic needs cannot continuously ensure the households with the necessary energy supply for food cooking. As for the agro-industrial residues, they cannot reduce the industrial consumption of fuels. There are also hydraulic resources whose conscientious exploitation could contribute to decrease the fuel consumption in terms of electricity. In sum, it would be necessary to improve the regulation as regards firewood supply, to promote the use of improved hearths with wood, to plan the fuel supplies and to assist the SONABEL in the electric production capacities reinforcement of its fuel-based power stations.
Il fait etat des principaux problemes energetiques : pauvrete des menages, manque de financement dans le secteur, desertification Les principales ressources energetiques sont le bois de feu, les produits petroliers et l electricite. Les besoins energetiques du.
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Build together the problem, obligatory passage for the conception of acceptable energy solutions? Social acceptance is a condition in performing energy projects. This notion is however complex: just like 'build', it is based on several factors and is changing. We would like to show that its construction requires that some time be spend at a stage often neglected, that of the formulation of the problem.
So that the 'awareness' would be aimed not only to the public, but also to the decision makers and promoters, so that everyone has a good knowledge of the concerns of the others, and of their limits. To this end, the 'participation' could take several forms, complementary to the 'public' one generally accepted. Cette notion est toutefois complexe : comme 'construit', elle se fonde sur plusieurs facteurs et est evolutive. Nous voudrions montrer que sa construction exige qu'un temps soit consacre a une etape souvent negligee, celle de la formulation du probleme. Ainsi, la 'sensibilisation' serait destinee non seulement au grand public, mais aussi aux decideurs et promoteurs, afin que tous aient une bonne connaissance des preoccupations des uns et des autres, comme de leurs contraintes.
A cette fin, la 'participation' pourrait prendre plusieurs formes, complementaires a celle 'publique' generalement adoptee. Local energy policies: Planning devices and coaching tools - Example of the French case; Politiques energetiques locales: Dispositifs de planification et outils d'accompagnement - Exemple du cas francais. Collectivities traditionally have multiple responsibilities linked to energy.
They act directly on the energy chain production-distribution-consumption through their heritage, but also on the tripych space-environment-society, in particular through their planning choices. Hence, all the public policies are concerned by the energy theme. However, collectivities seem to suffer from an information deficit, both on planning devices that can be mobilized and on the territory features. This article proposes to realise an overview tour of the coaching tools that can be used by the French territories collectivities to build efficient energy policies.
Elles agissent directement sur la chaine energetique production-distribution-consommation a travers leur patrimoine, mais aussi sur le triptyque espace-environnement-societe, en particulier a travers leurs choix d'amenagement. Ainsi, toutes les politiques publiques sont concernees par la thematique ' energie '. Cependant, les collectivites semblent souffrir d'un deficit d'information, tant sur les dispositifs de planification pouvant etre mobilises que sur les caracteristiques du territoire. Cet article propose de realiser un tour d'horizon de l'ensemble des outils d'accompagnements pouvant etre mobilises par les collectivites territoriales francaises pour construire des politiques energetiques efficaces.
Energy diagnosis; Diagnostic energetique. Concrete improvement solutions are proposed with profitability calculations. The audit procedure is presented. The most efficient solutions generally involve energy tariff rate shifts, heating regulation, power cut-off, reactive energy compensation and lighting management. Optimisation structurelle des systemes energetiques. The development of renewable energies is growing over the last decade to face environmental issues due to the world fossil fuel consumption increase.
These energies are highly involved in houses and commercial buildings and numerous systems have been proposed to meet their energy demand. Therefore, improving both efficiency and use of systems, i. However, system integration yields a very complex problem to be solved due to the large number of units and theirs technology, size, working conditions and interconnections. This situation highlights the lack of systematic analysis for comparing integrated system performance and for correctly pointing out their potential. As a result, the objective of this thesis is to develop and to present such a method, in other words the structural optimization of energy systems.
It will be helpful to choose the optimal equipment by identifying all the possibilities of system arrangements and for comparing their performance. Combinations have then been subjected to environmental climate , structural available area and economical constrains while assessment criteria have considered both energy, economic and ecological aspects. For that reason, as well as energy and economic analyses, the exergy concept has also been applied to the equipment. Nevertheless, the high degree of complexity of integrated systems and the tedious numerical calculations make the resolution by using standard software very difficult.
It is clear that the whole optimization project would be considerable and the aim is to develop models and optimization tools. First of all, an exhaustive review of energy equipment including photovoltaic panels, solar collectors, heat pumps and thermal energy storage systems, has been performed. Afterwards, energy and exergy models have been developed and tested for two specific energy scenarios: a a solar assisted heat pump using ice and warm water storages and b an ambient air heat pump associated to photovoltaic panels. A superstructure has then been constructed to account for every system combination possibility.
The different energy paths have been illustrated while irreversibility along every path is identified. Thus, it allows the system operation to be clearly understood. Besides, an exergy diagram has been developed and permits energy and exergy assessment of system and system arrangements to be not only identified but also quantified and separated depending on their renewable or non-renewable source. Finally, dimensions and operation variables have been optimized according to exergy and economic criteria for the aforementioned scenarios; the potential of each energy option has been estimated and yield a better energy management to be reached.
Presentation of the national program for the improvement of the energy efficiency; Presentation du programme national d'amelioration de l' efficacite energetique. This paper is the presentation of the energy mastership national program. It deals with the actions leading to the development of the enterprises and household demand, the increase of the actions in favor of the energy, the actions in the transportation sector, the actions in the habitat domain, the mastership of the energy consumption for the industrial and service sector industries, the renewable energies development, the ADEME devices.
Energy efficiency at the St-Guillaume cheese factory, a profitable choice; L' efficacite energetique a la fromagerie St-Guillaume, un choix profitable. The facility employs people to produce 3 million kilograms of cheese annually. In addition, 21 million litres of whey are produced.
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This sub-product of cheese is turned into powder to make ice cream, protein shakes, energy drinks, and feed for animals. The cost of transforming whey had gone up over the last five years, which also cut into the operating budget. Whey transformation also consumed large amounts of well water. In order to address these challenges, the energy consumption of the facility was evaluated in an effort to lower the energy costs by 30 per cent, lower water consumption and reduce water pollution.
The study identified and measured the energy consumption for each activity related to the whey transformation process. The equipment and procedures used in the facility were subsequently modernized and the air quality in the facility was also improved. The improvement in whey transformation rendered the facility profitable again.
The money saved over the next 10 years will be more than 2 million dollars.
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Energy transition and security: which voluntary codes? The European Commission's safety, solidarity and efficiency measures. Securing natural gas supplies and favoring cogeneration. Less energy consuming buildings: rework of the energy efficiency directive. Energy efficiency inside buildings: GDF Suez report; Transition et securite energetiques : quels codes volontaires? Les mesures de securite, solidarite et efficacite de la commission europeenne. Securiser l'approvisionnement en gaz naturel et favoriser la cogeneration. Des batiments moins gourmands en energie: refonte de la directive sur la performance energetique.
Efficacite energetique dans les batiments: GDF Suez au rapport volontaire. This dossier gathers a series of short articles about energy security and efficiency in a context of policy transition. The first paper deals with the use of international standards to promote energy efficiency thanks to efficient public policies and private sector actions.
This was the main topic of the mixed workshop organized by the International electrotechnics Commission IEC in spring The second paper presents the new strategic analysis of the European commission in the domain of energy which stresses on the '' climate change proposals approved in December A new European action plan for energy security and solidarity defines 5 domains requiring an extra action to warrant a sustainable energy supply.
The commission is also examining the challenges that Europe will have to face between and The third article treats of the security of natural gas supplies which represents a quarter of the European Union EU energy mix. The supply crises susceptible to occur may have serious economic and social consequences. Therefore, the EU must be prepared to warrant its security of supplies.
Cogeneration allows the EU to stay close to its energy goals. Buildings play a key role in the realisation of the EU's energy saving objectives and fight against climate change. Finally, the publication of the second WBCSD World business council for sustainable development international report on buildings energy efficiency has led GDF Suez utility to reaffirm its commitment in favour of energy saving and efficiency. Optimisation multi-objectif des systemes energetiques. The increasing demand of energy and the environmental concerns related to greenhouse gas emissions lead to more and more private or public utilities to turn to nuclear energy as an alternative for the future.
Nuclear power plants are then called to experience large expansion in the coming years. Improved technologies will then be put in place to support the development of these plants. This thesis considers the optimization of the thermodynamic cycle of the secondary loop of Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant in terms of output power and thermal efficiency.
In this thesis, investigations are carried out to determine the optimal operating conditions of steam power cycles by the judicious use of the combination of steam extraction at the different stages of the turbines. Whether it is the case of superheating or regeneration, we are confronted in all cases to an optimization problem involving two conflicting objectives, as increasing the efficiency imply the decrease of mechanical work and vice versa.
Solving this kind of problem does not lead to unique solution, but to a set of solutions that are tradeoffs between the conflicting objectives. To search all of these solutions, called Pareto optimal solutions, the use of an appropriate optimization algorithm is required. Before starting the optimization of the secondary loop, we developed a thermodynamic model of the secondary loop which includes models for the main thermal components e.
This model is used to calculate the thermodynamic state of the steam and water at the different points of the installation. The thermodynamic model has been developed with Matlab and validated by comparing its predictions with the operating data provided by the engineers of the power plant. The optimizer developed in VBA Visual Basic for Applications uses an optimization algorithm based on the principle of genetic algorithms, a stochastic optimization method which is very robust and widely used to solve problems usually difficult to handle by traditional methods.
Genetic algorithms GAs have been used in previous research and proved to be efficient in optimizing heat exchangers networks HEN Dipama et al. So, HEN have been synthesized to recover the maximum heat in an industrial process. The optimization problem formulated in the context of this work consists of a single objective, namely the maximization of energy recovery. The optimization algorithm developed in this thesis extends the ability of GAs by taking into account several objectives simultaneously.
This algorithm provides an innovation in the method of finding optimal solutions, by using a technique which consist of partitioning the solutions space in the form of parallel grids called "watching corridors". These corridors permit to specify areas the observation corridors in which the most promising feasible solutions are found and used to guide the search towards optimal solutions. A measure of the progress of the search is incorporated into the optimization algorithm to make it self-adaptive through the use of appropriate genetic operators at each stage of optimization process. The proposed method allows a fast convergence and ensure a diversity of solutions.
Moreover, this method gives the algorithm the ability to overcome difficulties associated with optimizing problems with complex Pareto front landscapes e. The multi-objective optimization algorithm has been first validated using numerical test problems found in the literature as well as energy systems optimization problems.
Finally, the proposed optimization algorithm has been applied for the optimization of the secondary loop of Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, and a set of solutions have been found which permit to make the power plant operate in optimal conditions. Abstract shortened by UMI. Energy statistics.
France; Statistiques energetiques. Details resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. Energy accounting. Comptabilite de la gestion energetique. This manual is intended to assist Canadian firms and organizations in the industrial, commercial and institutional sectors to design and implement an appropriate energy accounting system capable of monitoring energy productivity and performance.
The manual provides a standard account format applicable to both single- and multi-unit organizations, and is presented through the use of text, forms, and numerical examples. It includes the basic concepts and relevant approaches, reporting considerations, the measurement of production outputs and energy inputs, and the measurement of energy productivity. Appendices provide a glossary of terms, calorific contents of energy commodities, metric conversion factors and prefixes, and a set of blank forms.
Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France. This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. Opinion of Energie-Cites on: Proposals for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council; Avis d'Energie-Cites sur la: proposition de directive du parlement europeen et du conseil relative a l' efficacite energetique dans les utilisations finales et aux services energetiques.
The Proposal for a Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services, published in December , is intended to develop and encourage energy efficiency on the demand side, in particular that provided by utilities and related services companies in the form of energy services, since promoting energy services is an important element for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
This proposal, focusing on the promotion of end-use efficiency, should be regarded as a necessary instrument to complement the recently adopted legislation on the opening of the internal energy market, which mainly leads to efficiency improvements on the supply side. Opinion of Energie-Cites on: proposal for a directive of the European parliament and of the council; Avis d'Energie-Cites sur la: proposition de directive du parlement Europeen et du conseil relative a l' efficacite energetique dans les utilisations finales et aux services energetiques.
Memorandum Considering that the functioning of the energy market does not allow ''market forces to allocate economic and natural resources effectively'' and that measures should be taken to improve this, the Commission draws up a list of the main obstacles and presents objectives. According to the Commission, energy efficiency is a strategy to deal with scarce public funds while at the same time addressing serious energy and climate challenges, using the concept of leadership by example.
Energy efficiency in arenas : the effect of the distribution circuit on the surface ice temperature; L' efficacite energetique dans les arenas : effet du circuit de distribution sur la temperature de surface de la glace. The ice in most arenas is cooled by brine chillers which consume large amounts of energy. The pump alone that circulates the brine in the piping system underneath the cement consumes as much as 15 per cent of the energy required to cool the ice.
This article described a new brine system for skating rinks that has been used in 20 arenas in Montreal. The brine specifications in the arenas were first updated. Then, the commonly used two-pass brine distribution systems with evaporators connected in parallel were replaced with a four-pass brine distribution system with evaporators connected in series. Brine flow was reduced by half and pump horsepower was also significantly reduced while maintaining sufficient fluid velocity in the heat exchangers.
Money was also saved because less salt was needed to top up the system. The new design for the brine system is recommended for replacing corroded headers, because payback can be immediate. The new system maintains optimal ice conditions. While the ice quality remains the same, the money saved is substantial, notably 8, per rink per year. Strategy and development means of the energy efficiency and renewable energies sources in France; Strategie et moyens de developpement de l' efficacite energetique et des sources d'energies renouvelables en France.
In the framework of the renewable energies development policy and the energy mastership wanted by the Government, a document has been asked by the Prime Minister. It evaluates the development prospects at long and medium dated, of the main chains of renewable energies production taking into account the national developable deposits size, the technologies assessment, the environmental impacts and the competition facing the traditional energies.
It evaluates the measures leading to an increasing efficiency. Measures concerning the regulations, the budget, and the fiscality are also discussed. From these analysis, a national strategy for actions in favor the renewable energies, are proposed. Energy situation september ; Conjoncture energetique septembre The monthly situation analysis in France is presented.
Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. Energy situation - September ; Conjoncture energetique - septembre This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January and up to August Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power.
Simulation du potentiel energetique de la houle au port autonome Energetic situation. July ; Conjoncture energetique. Juillet This report presents a balance sheet of the French energy situation domestic demand, national production, consumption, imports, exports, sales, prices, stocks.. Overall energy situation, January ; Conjoncture energetique , janvier This report is an economic review of the French energy data from January to January energy demand, imports, exports, prices, national consumption and production of primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power with climate corrections.
Energy independence versus world market; Independance energetique versus marche mondial. The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy.
One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. Energy situation - February ; Conjoncture energetique - fevrier This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January or and up to February Energy situation - February ; Conjoncture energetique fevrier This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January or January and up to January or February France: energy prospects for ; France: perspectives energetiques pour This study analyzes 4 simple energy policy scenarios and their impact on the abatement of carbon dioxide emissions.
Two other extreme scenarios, on the contrary, consider a maximum reduction of the use of fossil fuels, one with the development of nuclear energy and the other without. The last scenario is intermediate between the extreme ones and considers the development of renewable energy sources and the implementation of important energy saving. Energy policy of France; Politique energetique de la France. In November , the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy.
The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered.
The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. Evolution of energy structures; Evolution des structures energetiques. Because of the big inertia and long time constants of energy systems, their long-time behaviour is mainly determined by their present day state and by the trends of their recent evolution.
For this reason, it is of prime importance to foresee the evolution of the different energy production sources which may play an important role in the future. A status of the world energy consumption and production is made first using the energy statistics of the IEA. Then, using the trends observed since , the consequences of a simple extrapolation of these trends is examined. Finally, the scenarios of forecasting of energy structures, like those supplied by the International institute for applied systems analysis IIASA are discussed.
The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France. This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP general directorate for energy and raw materials. In order to develop successfully, these countries must necessarily achieve a threshold which, for the whole planet, will come to 1 MW of electricity. One way this can be done is by building several hundred power plants, with all the concomitant pollution problems.
Another solution is Stirling motors, which use the power of sunlight to pump and pasteurize water and to generate electricity for one or more families, or for developmental home industries. Which future energetic package? In this plenary session presided over by Olivier Appert President of the IFP new Energies , are considered hypotheses, evolutions or constraints which will orient the making of this package while satisfying the need of people mobility and flashing a searchlight on the conditions and problems raised by the gas development. The energy situation. September ; Conjoncture energetique.
Septembre Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials production and consumption levels in France in September Primary energy demand has increased for the petroleum products, stayed stable for the natural gas, decreased for the coal and the electric power. Energy situation - March ; Conjoncture energetique - mars This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January and up to February-March Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity.
Energy situation - April ; Conjoncture energetique - avril This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January and up to March-April Energy statistics France - June ; Statistiques energetiques France - juin This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels coal, lignite, coke.
The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for Energy situation. November ; Conjoncture energetique. Novembre This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January and up to October Energy situation - May ; Conjoncture energetique - mai This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January and up to April-May January ; Conjoncture energetique.
Janvier This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January and up to December Towards a new energy revolution? At the time of the Today, in industrialized countries and if we include all forms of energies space heating, transport, production, feeding etc. We have reached a 'power society' which has put no limit to its growth needs. However, this growth is based on an immoderate consumption of fossil fuels which are on the way of exhaustion.
A new energy revolution appears as inevitable to us, but will it be similar or in opposition to the previous ones? This revolution will have to integrate a new parameter: the need to fit with a sustainable development philosophy. To determine the conditions of this revolution, it is useful to analyse the energy systems from the needs to the resources, in a historical, philosophical and technical manner.
Starting from this analysis, this book explores the possibilities to build the transition towards this new energy revolution. Statistical data on energy. This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy status of France for the year supplies, consumption and uses, national production, evolution per energy source and per sector of the national production and consumption since , general indicators evolution of the energy bill, prices, energy independence and gross internal product since , projections. Details about the resources, uses and prices are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electricity and solid mineral fuels and compared with the average data of the European Union.
August ; Conjoncture energetique. Aout This report makes a statement of the French energy consumption, demand, import and export since January and up to August July ; Conjoncture energetique juillet This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January and up to June or July Architectural design and energy performance; Conception architecturale et performance energetique. Beaud, Ph. This day was organized around the energy performance of the architecture in three parts. A first time dealt with the design of new buildings and private houses.
Simulation tools for the energy optimization and practice of design are discussed. The second part was devoted to the new regulation with an open discussion on the regulatory costs. The last part forecasted the evolution until taking into account the french program of fight against the greenhouse effect, the limitation of the air conditioning consumption and the definition of a quality label concerning the energy performances.
Another possible energy landscape; Un autre paysage energetique possible. This analysis presents the national energy balances from the national energy accounting. The first part presents the accounting analysis on the electric power consumption and production in France. The second part deals with the global energy accounting, for the energy sources and utilization, together.
From these analysis the authors show how the global energy efficiency of production and utilization is possible. Solutions allowing the reduction of the non renewable energies consumption and solution for the nuclear power phaseout are also proposed. Energy situation August ; Conjoncture energetique aout The monthly energy situation analysis in France at August is presented. The monthly energy situation analysis in France at september , is presented.
Energy situation, January ; Conjoncture energetique , janvier The monthly energy situation analysis in France, at January , is presented. Energy policy conference on the regulation of energy industries; Conference de politique energetique sur la regulation des industries energetiques. This document is the report of the conference meeting jointly organized by the French general plan commission and the general direction of energy and raw materials on the regulation of energy industries: 1 - the changes in the regulation of public utilities in competition: harmonization, respect of impartiality and social cohesion, organization of a loyal competition, specialized regulation and regulation of competition, open debates; 2 - towards an homogenous model of regulatory authority?
Intelligent networks: evolution or revolution? Source of energy efficiency or economical optimisation? For who's benefit? Au benefice de qui? The electricity sector has experienced a slow evolution. Renewable production developments and telecommunications and computers usage will bring major changes with hard to predict effects.
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Computerized management of production and local storage combined to a certain mastering of the allowed consumption by home automation could improve reliability and the final price for consumers. This change offers great opportunities but also risks of failures, both financial and technical. The regulators have a major role to play in order to understand the concrete gains of the technological propositions and to regulate the investment costs involved. Le developpements des productions renouvelables, l'utilisation des telecommunications et de l'informatique provoquera un bouleversement majeur dont il est difficile de prevoir l'ampleur.
La gestion automatisee des productions et stockages locaux combinee a une certaine maitrise de la consommation permise par la domotique pourrait ameliorer la fiabilite et le prix final pour les consommateurs. Ce changement presente de grandes opportunites mais aussi des risques d'echecs, tant financiers que techniques. Les regulateurs ont un role majeur a jouer pour comprendre les gains concrets des propositions technologiques et reguler les couts d'investissement qu'elles impliquent.
Meels: municipalities and energy efficiency in a liberalized system. Guidelines for municipalities: adapting to new roles in a liberalized market; Meels: les municipalites et l' efficacite energetique dans un systeme liberalise. Recommandations detinees aux municipalites: comment peuvent-elles s'adapter a leurs nouveaux roles dans un marche liberalise?
Even if the liberalization of energy markets seems to make it more difficult, it also creates opportunities for the committed local authority. Local authorities fulfill their functions in the energy sphere via a number of roles: as a consumer of energy, as a producer of energy, as a distributor of energy, as a trader of energy, as a regulator, planner and policy maker regarding energy using activities, as an awareness tool of the issues relating to energy use and as a provider of incentives to improve energy performance.
There are impacts of liberalization on each of these roles. In most, liberalization has not actually changed what they do, only the degree of attention that should be given to it. Only in those areas where trading is involved are new skills necessary, for instance in purchasing energy, in transporting one own energy and in trading energy. In this framework, the following topics are successively analyzed: Improving performance as an energy consumer, improving performance as an energy producer, improving performance as an energy trader, improving performance as an energy distributor, improving performance in delivering sustainable, energy policies at local level and improving performance as a facilitator and awareness programs.
A guide on the possibilities of increasing energy efficiency in the meat, poultry, beverage and milk processing industries; Guide sur les possibilites d'accroitre l' efficacite energetique dans l'industrie de la transformation des viandes et volailles, des boissons et de la transformation du lait. This guide describes the potential for improving the energy effectiveness in Canada's agri-food sector. The food and beverage sector is the second most important manufacturing sector in Canada.
Since , it has ranked as the highest employer in Quebec. The sector consumed 29, GWh of electricity in , with greenhouse gas emissions in the order of 3, kilo tonnes. This report referred specifically to energy efficiency measures that can be adopted for meat and poultry processing, beverage and beer production, and milk processing. It also described some aspects of water management, which is closely associated with energy use in the agri-food sector which relies heavily on hot water. Some promising innovations that can lead to energy savings include membrane filtration, cold pasteurization, heat pumps, and mechanical vapour re-compression.
Energy savings can also be achieved through innovative heat transfer methods such as infrared, microwave, and heat induction. Energy perspectives of the France by Energy scenario; Perspectives energetiques de la France a l'horizon Scenarios energetiques. The aim of the working group was to realize quantitative approaches of the french energy system by supporting the reflexions of the Energy Commission. The presented scenario are not prevision of the future. They just allow, in function of the hypothesis and the models used, to establish an approach of the consequences in term of the final energy demand.
Two simulation tools were used and described in the chapter 3: Medpro-Poles and Markal-Times. The scenario are analyzed in the chapters 4 and 5. Results allow to see how the proposed measures are sufficient to reach in France the main objectives proposed by the european union. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available This study interested in monitoring energy quantitative and qualitative and environmental performances at various pilot digesters of animal biomass. Main results are:The combined effect of the diet and the substrate on quantitative experimental productivity of gas is in favor of poultry digesters continuously fed.
The biogas produced has better potential especially in industry. The environmental evaluation virtually shows a certain interest on the depollution for industrial digester. Law project relative to the energy markets; Projet de loi relatif aux marches energetiques. This document presents the law project relative to the energy markets. It aims to open the french gas market to the competition and defines the gas utilities obligations.
The first part presents the main topics of the law: the natural gas distribution access, the natural gas sector regulation, the gas utilities, the natural gas transport and distribution, the underground storage, the control and penalties. The second part details the commission works concerning this law project. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique. Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials coal, oil, etc. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal - 8.
Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal - 9. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal - 5. US oil policy and energy security; Politique petroliere americaine et securite energetique. Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy.
For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. The regional control of the canadian energy production; Le contraste provincial de la production energetique canadienne. This document provides information and presents data on the energy situation in many regions of Canada.
The first part deals with the petroleum and the bitumen shales of Alberta reserves, exploitation and production, environmental impacts , the second part discusses with the hydroelectricity choice of Quebec and the crisis. The nuclear situation of Ontario is presented in the third part nuclear park, programs, uranium reserves, research and development on Candu reactors , while the fourth part deals with the renewable energies wind power and biomass.
The canadian situation facing the Kyoto protocol is discussed in the last part. This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energy sources, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, fuel cells and combustion.
In the renewable energy area, projects concerning energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and small-scale hydro are presented. Nuclear safety and controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed. Provisional energy balance of France for ; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France pour A provisional energy accounting in France for is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions.
Provisional energy situation for the year ; Bilan energetique provisoire de l'annee This provisory energy balance, published by the Direction of the Energy and the raw materials, presents the primary energy consumption and production for each energy sources and the carbon dioxide emissions, for the year The evaluation provides also a sectoral analysis of the energy consumption illustrated by data tables.
The energy turn of the year ; Le tournant energetique de l'an The new laws on the energies market are going to change the commercial sector of the electric power market in France. The colloquium in two parts the 25 and 26 january , constitutes a reflection on the future of this new market. The first part provides papers on examples of european market in Great Britain, Germany and Scandinavia and presents the strategies of marketers.
The energy buyers of tomorrow will have to take appropriate risks to keep their competitiveness. The second part provides papers on the place of the cogeneration in this new market. The positive example of the United States and the negative example of the Germany are analyzed. US oil dependency and energy security; Dependance petroliere et securite energetique americaine. The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change.
The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence. The second one deals with the US energy security oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications. The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security.
Energy Research in Switzerland in ; Energieforschung Rapports de synthese. This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE contains the overview-reports that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes for the year Efficient use of energy in buildings, traffic, vehicles and accumulators, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, combustion technologies, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy, small hydropower, nuclear safety and nuclear waste disposal, regulatory nuclear safety research, nuclear fusion and energy economy basics.
In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, an emphasis was placed on highly efficient insulation systems, so-called passive dwellings, environmental issues, the use of solar energy, insulation using grass and hemp fibre as well as a market analysis for the IEA sustainable housing project.